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Just as the square expresses the number **496** of Malkuth, so it expresses
the number **168** of *Cholem Yesodeth*, the Mundane Chakra of this Sephirah, as the
structural parameter of the superstring constituents of the up and down quarks in atomic nuclei. As
13^{2} − 1 = **168** = 3 + 5 + 7 + ... + 25, it is the sum of the first 12 odd
integers after 1 that can be arranged along the sides of a square, four to each side. Traditionally, the Mundane
Chakra of Malkuth is associated with the four Elements of Earth, Water, Air & Fire, which are symbolized by the
four corners of a square and which correspond in a formal sense to the four lowest Sephiroth of the Tree of Life:
Malkuth, Yesod, Hod & Netzach, respectively.

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